Warsaw flourished in the late 19th century under Mayor Sokrates Starynkiewicz (1875–92), a Russian-born general appointed by Tsar Alexander III.

Under Starynkiewicz Warsaw saw its first water and sewer systems designed and built by the English engineer William Lindley and his son, William Heerlein Lindley, as well as the expansion and modernisation of trams, street lighting and gas works.

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The city is the seat of a Roman Catholic archdiocese (left bank of the Vistula) and diocese (right bank), and possesses various universities, most notably the Polish Academy of Sciences and the University of Warsaw, two opera houses, theatres, museums, libraries and monuments.

The historic city-centre of Warsaw with its picturesque Old Town in 1980 was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Today Warsaw is considered an "Alpha–" global city, a major international tourist destination and a significant cultural, political and economic hub.

Warsaw's economy, by a wide variety of industries, is characterised by FMCG manufacturing, metal processing, steel and electronic manufacturing and food processing.

Buildings represent examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period.

Warsaw provides many examples of architecture from the gothic, renaissance, baroque, neoclassical and modern periods, and around a quarter of the city is filled with luxurious parks and royal gardens.; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.It stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland, roughly 260 kilometres (160 mi) from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains.Warsaw remained the capital of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1796, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia to become the capital of the province of South Prussia.Liberated by Napoleon's army in 1806, Warsaw was made the capital of the newly created Duchy of Warsaw.After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, Warsaw was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia.