Therefore, most boards used in the construction of early cupboards show signs of being cut with an up-and-down saw.The circular saw although introduced in the mid 1850s could not be made big enough and powerful enough to cut lumber of the size used in furniture construction until 1880.Sloan holds many patents for cutting threads, shaping points, and forming the heads of screws.

The pit saw leaves marks on wood that look like this ///////////.

The pit saw is a two-man powered saw used in America before 1680 to cut logs into boards.

Machine plane marks are of some use in dating cupboards made as early as 1860, but machine plane marks usually suggest a construction date of 1880 or later.

The introduction of the modern looking butt hinge used to hold doors on cupboards dates to 1820. By 1840, cast iron hinges became thinner as manufacturers tried to squeeze more hinges out of each pound of iron.

The slot still had to be cut by hand with a hacksaw.

Country furniture made with these screws can easily be dated to the ten-year period 1846-1856.

Items made after 1846 are made using this new screw.

For the first ten years of production, machine made screws were made with no slot in their head.

The rough sawed lumber used in furniture construction was smoothed with either a hand held plane, or a planing machine.

The hand held plane was used in this country from the beginning until after 1900.

Planing machines were experimented with early in the 1800s.