Automobile accelerator pedals have historically been mechanical assemblies which link the pedal to the engine throttle by mechanical linkages or a Bowden cable.With the advent of electronic throttle control, accelerator pedals consist of a spring-loaded pedal arm connected to an electronic transducer.The NHTSA released a safety investigation report on October 25, finding that the accident vehicle was wrongly fitted with all-weather rubber floor mats meant for the RX 400h SUV, and that these mats were not secured by either of the two retaining clips.

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Three separate but related recalls of automobiles by Toyota Motor Corporation occurred at the end of 2009 and start of 2010.

Michael Barr of the Barr Group testified that NASA had not been able to complete its examination of Toyota's ETCS and that Toyota did not follow best practices for real time life critical software, and that a single bit flip which can be caused by cosmic rays could cause unintended acceleration.

As well, the run-time stack of the real-time operating system was not large enough and that it was possible for the stack to grow large enough to overwrite data that could cause unintended acceleration.

The original action was initiated by Toyota in their Defect Information Report, dated October 5, 2009, amended January 27, 2010.

As of January 28, 2010, Toyota had announced recalls of approximately 5.2 million vehicles for the pedal entrapment/floor mat problem, and an additional 2.3 million vehicles for the accelerator pedal problem.

Approximately 1.7 million vehicles are subject to both. As of January 2010, 21 deaths were alleged due to the pedal problem since 2000, but following the January 28 recall, additional NHTSA complaints brought the alleged total to 37.

On February 8, 2011, the NHTSA, in collaboration with NASA, released its findings into the investigation on the Toyota drive-by-wire throttle system.

This friction introduced mechanical hysteresis into the pedal force versus pedal position transfer function.

Put more simply, once the pedal was set at a specific position, the friction would help keep the pedal at this setting.

While these old purely mechanical designs did have some friction, the return spring force was always designed to overcome this friction with a considerable safety margin.