While Massachusetts Bay was indirectly extending its influence, it was growing apace at home and expanding its commerce.

From the middle of the century onward, it rapidly grew prosperous, and Boston became one of America's greatest ports.

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They chose Plymouth harbor as a site for their colony, and though the rigors of the first winter were severe, the settlement survived.

Even while Plymouth struggled for existence, other settlements were planted nearby.

For spreading his "new and dangerous opinion against the authority of the magistrates," he was sentenced by the general court to banishment.

He found refuge among friendly Indians in Rhode Island and soon established a colony there based on the concepts that men might believe as they wished and that church and state would be forever separate.

The one which occupied the Massachusetts Bay region after 1630 played a particularly significant part in the development of New England and of the nation.

It was founded by some twenty-five men who obtained a royal charter.

Sharing similar hardships, cultivating the same kind of rocky soil, following simple trades and crafts, these New Englanders rapidly acquired characteristics which marked them as a people apart.

Actually these qualities had roots that reached back to the one hundred and two sick and sea-weary "Pilgrims" who traveled to Cape Cod from Leyden and Plymouth.

Heart of the colony was Philadelphia, a city soon to be known for its broad, tree-shaded streets, its substantial brick and stone houses, and its busy docks. period, 30,000 people, representing many languages, creeds, and trades, lived there.