The Fijian coup d'état of December 2006 occurred as a continuation of the pressure which had been building since the military unrest of the 2000 Fijian coup d'état and 2005–06 Fijian political crisis.Fiji had seen four definitive coups in the past two decades.News service Fiji Village reported that he claimed that government leniency towards perpetrators of the 2000 coup had created a culture of disrespect for the law, to which he attributed the increasing incidents of rape, homicide, and desecration of Hindu temples.

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Perhaps the most significant of these has been the RTU bill, which would grant an amnesty to some of those involved or being investigated for involvement in the coup of 2000, including individuals who are presently officials within government.

There was friction concerning these bills and a truce was brokered by Vice-President Ratu Joni Madraiwiwi on 16 January 2006, which cooled the 2005–06 Fijian political crisis.

Even the possibility of declaring Fiji a theocratic Christian state was proposed in the past.

A long-running conflict between the government and military of the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Fiji) reached crisis point in early December 2006.

Bainimarama gave an ultimatum to Qarase to concede to these demands or to resign from his post by Friday 1 December. After weeks of preparations by the military, on 4 December, a well orchestrated military presence made itself known in Suva by setting up strategic road blocks, making public demonstrations of their presence and seizing weapons from opposing factions, including the police.

On 5 December, many key government ministers and chief executives were placed under house arrest and President Ratu Josefa Iloilo allegedly signed an order dissolving Parliament, though he later made a press statement denying having done so.The military said that the exercises were not threatening.Meanwhile, Qarase and President Iloilo attempted to fire Bainimarama, who was in Iraq inspecting Fijian peacekeeping troops, but their nominee for his replacement declined the position and Major Neumi Leweni said the Army remained loyal to Bainimarama.The proponents of the coup were an armed faction not closely associated with the military, who opposed their actions.After Bainimarama declared martial law and resolved the crisis by force, an interim government was sworn in, headed by current prime minister Laisenia Qarase.Brown feels that his words of encouragement were misconstrued and may have led to the coup.